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At the turn of the 21st century, the principles of human genetics and genetic genealogy were applied to the study of populations of Irish origin.
The development of in-depth studies of DNA sequences known as STRs and SNPs have allowed geneticists to associate subclades with specific Gaelic kindred groupings and their surnames , vindicating significant elements of Gaelic genealogy , as found in works such as the Leabhar na nGenealach.
The majority of the genomes of the insular Celts would therefore have emerged by 4, years ago. It was also suggested that the arrival of proto-Celtic language, possibly ancestral to Gaelic languages , may have occurred around this time.
In countries where Gaels live, census records documenting population statistics exist. The question of ethnic identity is slightly more complex, but included below are those who identify as ethnic Irish or Scottish.
It should be taken into account that not all are of Gaelic descent, especially in the case of Scotland , due to the nature of the Lowlands.
It also depends on the self-reported response of the individual and so is a rough guide rather than an exact science.
The two comparatively "major" Gaelic nations in the modern era are Ireland which in the census had , people who spoke Irish "daily" and 1,, who were "able" to speak it  and Scotland 58, fluent "Gaelic speakers" and 92, with "some Gaelic language ability" in the census .
Communities where the languages still are spoken natively are restricted largely to the west coast of each country and especially the Hebrides islands in Scotland.
However, a large proportion of the Gaelic-speaking population now lives in the cities of Glasgow and Edinburgh in Scotland, and Donegal , Galway , Cork and Dublin in Ireland.
Census in ,  there are more than 25, Irish-speakers in the United States, with the majority found in urban areas with large Irish-American communities such as Boston , New York City and Chicago.
As the Western Roman Empire began to collapse, the Irish along with the Anglo-Saxons were one of the peoples able to take advantage in Great Britain from the 4th century onwards.
Gaelic Christian missionaries were also active across the Frankish Empire. With the coming of the Viking Age and their slave markets, Irish were also dispersed in this way across the realms under Viking control; as a legacy, in genetic studies, Icelanders exhibit high levels of Gaelic-derived mDNA.
Since the fall of Gaelic polities, the Gaels have made their way across parts of the world, successively under the auspices of the Spanish Empire , French Empire , and the British Empire.
There has also been a mass "internal migration" within Ireland and Britain from the 19th century, with Irish and Scots migrating to the English-speaking industrial cities of London , Dublin , Glasgow , Liverpool , Manchester , Birmingham , Cardiff , Leeds , Edinburgh and others.
Many underwent a linguistic "Anglicisation" and eventually merged with Anglo populations. In a more narrow interpretation of the term Gaelic diaspora , it could be interpreted as referring to the Gaelic-speaking minority among the Irish , Scottish , and Manx diaspora.
However, the use of the term "diaspora" in relation to the Gaelic languages i. Research shows that this assumption is inaccurate. They agree, and their bard Amergin recites an incantation known as the Song of Amergin.
Based on the accounts of Tacitus , some modern historians associate him with an "Irish prince" said to have been entertained by Agricola , Governor of Britain and speculate at Roman sponsorship.
They gained control of what would now be named Connacht. The Gaels emerged into the clear historical record during the classical era, with ogham inscriptions and quite detailed references in Greco-Roman ethnography most notably by Ptolemy.
The Roman Empire conquered most of Britain in the 1st century, but did not conquer Ireland or the far north of Britain. The Gaels had relations with the Roman world , mostly through trade.
Roman jewelry and coins have been found at several Irish royal sites, for example. These raids increased in the 4th century, as Roman rule in Britain began to collapse.
Thus Christianity in Ireland during this early time retained elements of Gaelic culture. In the Middle Ages, Gaelic Ireland was divided into a hierarchy of territories ruled by a hierarchy of kings or chiefs.
By the 9th century, some of the most powerful kings were being acknowledged as High King of Ireland. Some, particularly champions of Christianity, hold the 6th to 9th centuries to be a Golden Age for the Gaels.
This is due to the influence which the Gaels had across Western Europe as part of their Christian missionary activities. Similar to the Desert Fathers , Gaelic monastics were known for their asceticism.
Clonmacnoise , Glendalough , Clonard , Durrow and Inis Cathaigh are some of the more prominent Ireland-based monasteries founded during this time.
The earliest recorded raids were on Rathlin and Iona in ; these hit and run attacks continued for some time until the Norsemen began to settle in the s at Dublin setting up a large slave market , Limerick , Waterford and elsewhere.
This meant an excelleration of Gaelicisation in the northern part of Great Britain. They were involved in a series of battles against the Vikings: Tara , Glenmama and Clontarf.
The last of these saw Brian's death in There was also more trade and communication with Normanised Britain and France. The Norman invasion of Ireland took place in stages during the late 12th century.
Norman mercenaries landed in Leinster in at the request of Diarmait Mac Murchada , who sought their help in regaining his throne.
The Norman kings of England claimed sovereignty over this territory, leading to centuries of conflict between the Normans and the native Irish. At this time, a literary anti-Gaelic sentiment was born and developed by the likes of Gerald of Wales as part of a propaganda campaign with a Gregorian "reform" gloss to justify taking Gaelic lands.
Scotland also came under Anglo-Norman influence in the 12th century. The Davidian Revolution saw the Normanisation of Scotland's monarchy, government and church; the founding of burghs , which became mainly English-speaking; and the royally-sponsored immigration of Norman aristocrats.
In Ireland, the Normans carved out their own semi-independent lordships, but many Gaelic Irish kingdoms remained outside Norman control and gallowglass warriors were brought in from the Highlands to fight for various Irish kings.
In , a Scottish army landed in Ireland as part of Scotland's war against England. Despite his own Norman ancestry, Edward urged the Irish to ally with the Scots by invoking a shared Gaelic ancestry and culture, and most of the northern kings acknowledged him as High King of Ireland.
A Gaelic Irish resurgence began in the midth century: English royal control shrank to an area known as the Pale and, outside this, many Norman lords adopted Gaelic culture, becoming culturally Gaelicised.
The English government tried to prevent this through the Statutes of Kilkenny , which forbade English settlers from adopting Gaelic culture, but the results were mixed and particularly in the West, some Normans became Gaelicised.
During the 16th and 17th centuries, the Gaels were affected by the policies of the Tudors and the Stewarts who sought to anglicise the population and bring both Ireland and the Highlands under stronger centralised control,  as part of what would become the British Empire.
The new English, whose power lay in the Pale of Dublin, then began to conquer the island. Gaelic kings were encouraged to apply for a surrender and regrant : to surrender their lands to the king, and then have them regranted as freeholds.
Those who surrendered were also expected to follow English law and customs, speak English, and convert to the Protestant Anglican Church.
Decades of conflict followed in the reign of Elizabeth I , culminating in the Nine Years' War — The war ended in defeat for the Irish Gaelic alliance, and brought an end to the independence of the last Irish Gaelic kingdoms.
James saw the Gaels as a barbarous and rebellious people in need of civilising,  and believed that Gaelic culture should be wiped out. When the leaders of the Irish Gaelic alliance fled Ireland in , their lands were confiscated.
James set about colonising this land with English-speaking Protestant settlers from Britain, in what became known as the Plantation of Ulster.
It was meant to establish a loyal British Protestant colony in Ireland's most rebellious region and to sever Gaelic Ulster's links with Gaelic Scotland.
Since then, the Gaelic language has gradually diminished in most of Ireland and Scotland. The 19th century was the turning point as The Great Hunger in Ireland, and across the Irish Sea the Highland Clearances , caused mass emigration leading to Anglicisation, but also a large diaspora.
Many of the participants in the Irish Revolution of — were inspired by these ideals and so when a sovereign state was formed the Irish Free State , post-colonial enthusiasm for the re- Gaelicisation of Ireland was high and promoted through public education.
Results were very mixed however and the Gaeltacht where native speakers lived continued to retract. The last native speaker of Manx died in the s, though use of the Manx language never fully ceased.
There is now a resurgent language movement and Manx is once again taught in all schools as a second language and in some as a first language.
Gaelic society was traditionally made up of kin groups known as clans, each with its own territory and headed by a male chieftain. Succession to the chieftainship or kingship was through tanistry.
When the chieftain or king died, his tanist would automatically succeed him. The tanist had to share the same great-grandfather as his predecessor i.
The Gaels have always had a strong oral tradition , maintained by shanachies. The Gaels had their own style of dress, which became the modern belted plaid and kilt in Scotland.
They also have their own extensive Gaelic literature , style of music and dances Irish dancing and Highland dancing , social gatherings Feis and Ceilidh , and their own sports Gaelic games and Highland games.
The Gaelic languages are part of the Celtic languages and fall under the wider Indo-European language family. There are two main historical theories concerning the origin and development of the Gaelic languages from a Proto-Celtic root: the North Atlantic-based Insular Celtic hypothesis posits that Goidelic and Brythonic languages have a more recent common ancestor than Continental Celtic languages , while the Q-Celtic and P-Celtic hypothesis posits that Goidelic is more closely related to the Celtiberian language , while Brythonic is closer to the Gaulish language.
Estimates of the emergence of proto-Gaelic in Ireland vary widely from the introduction of agriculture c. Little can be said with certainty, as the language now known as Old Irish —ancestral to modern Irish , Scots Gaelic and Manx —only began to be properly recorded with the Christianisation of Ireland in the 4th century, after the introduction of the Roman script.
Primitive Irish does appear in a specialised written form, using a unique script known as Ogham. The oldest examples of Ogham have survived in the form of memorial inscriptions or short epitaphs on pillar-like stone monuments see Mac Cairthinn mac Coelboth.
Ogham stones are found throughout Ireland and neighbouring parts of Britain. This form of written Primitive Irish is thought to have been in use as early as BC.
The script frequently encodes a name or description of the owner and surrounding region, and it is possible that the inscribed stones may have represented territorial claims.
The Gaelic languages have been in steep decline since the beginning of the 19th century, when they were majority languages of Ireland and the Scottish Highlands; today they are endangered languages.
As far back as the Statutes of Kilkenny in , the British government had dissuaded use of Gaelic for political reasons. As the old Gaelic aristocracy were displaced or assimilated, the language lost its prestige and became primarily a peasant language, rather than one of education and government.
During the 19th century, a number of Gaeilgeoir organisations were founded to promote a broad cultural and linguistic revival.
At this time, Irish Gaelic was widely spoken along the Western seaboard and a few other enclaves and the Gaelic League began defining it as the " Gaeltacht ", idealised as the core of true Irish-Ireland, rather than the Anglo-dominated Dublin.
Until , school children had to pass Modern Irish to achieve a Leaving Cert and studying the subject remains obligatory. There are also Gaelscoileanna where children are taught exclusively through the medium of Irish.
The last native Manx Gaelic speaker died in , although there are ongoing attempts at revival. This has seen the growth of Gaelic medium education.
The four seasonal festivals celebrated in the Gaelic calendar , still observed to this day, are Imbolc , Beltane , Lughnasadh and Samhain. Some of them were associated with specific social functions, seasonal events and personal archetypal qualities.
This realm was variously held to be located on a set of islands or underground. The Gaels believed that certain heroic persons could gain access to this spiritual realm, as recounted in the various echtra adventure and immram voyage tales.
The Gaels underwent Christianisation during the 5th century and that religion, de facto , remains the predominant one to this day, although irreligion is fast rising.
The 6th—9th centuries are generally held to be the height of Gaelic Christianity , with numerous saints, scholars and works of devotional art.
This balance began to unravel during the 12th century with the polemics of Bernard of Clairvaux , who attacked various Gaelic customs including polygamy  and hereditary clergy as "pagan".
As part of this, the Catholic Church actively participated in the Norman conquest of Gaelic Ireland, with the issuing of Laudabiliter claiming to gift the King of England the title " Lord of Ireland " and in Scotland strongly encouraged king David who Normanised that country.
Even within orders such as the Franciscans , ethnic tensions between Norman and Gael continued throughout the later Middle Ages,  as well as competition for ecclesiastic posts.
During the 16th century, with the emergence of Protestantism and Tridentine Catholicism, a distinct Christian sectarianism made its way into Gaelic life, with societal effects carrying on down to this day.
The Tudor state used the Anglican Church to bolster their power and enticed native elites into the project, without making much initial effort to convert the Irish Gaelic masses; meanwhile, the mass of Gaeldom as well as the " Old English " became staunchly Catholic.
Due to the geopolitical rivalry between Protestant Britain and Catholic France and Spain, the Catholic religion and its mostly Gaelic followers in Ireland were persecuted for a long time.
Efforts at persuading Highlanders in general of the value of this primarily Lowland movement were hampered by the complicated politics of the Highlands, with religious rivalries and clan antagonism becoming entwined a prominent example was the intense rivalry, even hatred, between the generally Presbyterian Campbells and the generally Catholic MacDonalds , but most Highlanders later converted to Presbyterianism in the 19th century during the breakdown of the clan system.
In a few remote areas, however, Catholicism was kept alive and even rejuvenated to some extent by Irish Franciscan missionaries, [ citation needed ] but in most of the Highlands it was replaced by Presbyterianism.
The adoption of the Free Church of Scotland — in the Highlands following the Disruption of was a reassertion of Gaelic identity in opposition to forces of improvement and clearance.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Not to be confused with Gauls. For other uses, see Gael disambiguation. Celtic ethnic group of Ireland, Scotland and the Isle of Man.
Areas which were linguistically and culturally Gaelic c. Peoples and societies. Religion and mythology. Indo-European studies.
Scholars Marija Gimbutas J. Main articles: Irish clans and Scottish clans. Main articles: Irish diaspora and Scottish diaspora. Mainly Goidelic areas.
Mainly Pictish areas. Mainly Brythonic areas. See also: History of Ireland — and Scotland in the early modern period.
Main article: History of the Irish language. Respondents who stated they could speak Irish and Gaelic in the censuses. Main article: Ancient Celtic religion.
Main article: Gaelic Christianity. White Irish was an option in the ethnicity section of the Census of the United Kingdom ; this did not distinguish between those of Gaelic-Irish descent and those of Anglo-Irish descent.
The results for this were: , in England and Wales ; , in Northern Ireland ; and 53, in Scotland. The pioneering figure in this direction is Dr.
The Journal. Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency. Statistics Canada. Retrieved 7 February Jill Vaughan. Retrieved 2 July Northern Scotland.
This turnover invites the possibility of accompanying introduction of Indo-European, perhaps early Celtic, language. Irish Bronze Age haplotypic similarity is strongest within modern Irish, Scottish, and Welsh populations, and several important genetic variants that today show maximal or very high frequencies in Ireland appear at this horizon.
These include those coding for lactase persistence, blue eye color, Y chromosome R1b haplotypes, and the hemochromatosis CY allele; to our knowledge, the first detection of a known Mendelian disease variant in prehistory.
These findings together suggest the establishment of central attributes of the Irish genome 4, y ago. History Ireland.
Autumn From Pictland to Alba, — Edinburgh University Press. Online Etymology Dictionary. Oxford English Dictionary.
December Retrieved 14 April Oxford Reference. Archaeological Origins of Scotland". Centre for Scottish and Celtic Studies. The Scotsman.
Retrieved 30 October Bruce Durie. Eoganacht Septs. Family Tree DNA. Clan Donald Heritage.Wir haben nicht selten angenommen, eine Antwort auf Gälisch Slowakei England Quote zu haben, obwohl sich der Betreffende sehr bemühte, feinstes Englisch zu sprechen. Ansichten Lesen Bearbeiten Quelltext bearbeiten Versionsgeschichte. Es bedeutet "Traurigkeit" auf Www.Oddset.De Plus. Wie sein ältester Bruder Michael arbeitet er als Rechtsanwalt in den gleichen Gerichten, in denen sein Vater sich seinen Namen machte. Michael Klevenhaus regularly publishes prose and lyric in Gaelic in Scotland and wrote the first German phrase-book for Scottish-Gaelic. Ithidh mo charaid, an duine agam hama agus ugh. Irischist die Hauptstadt der Republik Irland und wurde einst als Ansiedlung der Wikinger gegruendet. Gälisch und steht für Wärme und Leidenschaft. Synonyme Pflichten Spiel Englisch für "Gaelic":. But be warned : the Cork accent is very special and not too easy to understand at least not for Germans. He became a pretty accomplished goalkeeper, good enough Beste Spielothek in Weipertshausen finden play for his county, Antrim, in gaelic football. Niederländisch Wörterbücher. English Celtic Erse Goidelic. Beim Dezimalsystem wird grundsätzlich nur der Singular des Nomens verwendet. Gälisch und Cornish als Landessprachen. Italienisch Wörterbücher. Übersetzung im Kontext von „irish gaelic“ in Englisch-Deutsch von Reverso Context: There are English songs, Latin and Irish Gaelic songs as well. Übersetzung Englisch-Deutsch für Gaelic im PONS Online-Wörterbuch nachschlagen! Gratis Vokabeltrainer, Verbtabellen, Aussprachefunktion. Übersetzung für 'Gaelic' im kostenlosen Englisch-Deutsch Wörterbuch und viele weitere Deutsch-Übersetzungen. Wichtigste Übersetzungen. Englisch, Deutsch. Gaelic, Irish Gaelic nnoun: Refers to person, place, thing, quality, etc. uncountable (Gaelic language of Ireland). Im gälischen Sprachgesetz (Schottland) von (Gaelic Language Act) wurde ein Sprachentwicklungsinstitut eingerichtet, das Bòrd na Gàidhlig, „mit Blick.